СОВЕРШЕНСТВОВАНИЕ ПАРАДИГМЫ СЕРВИСА
В настоящее время наука о сервисе, как современном виде услуг, находится на стадии эволюционного развития. Поэтому существует многочисленные взгляды относительно их сущности и механизмов. В данной работе рассмотрены некоторые современные взгляды на понятия услуга и сервис, сделана попытка дать новые определения понятий услуга, обслуживание и сервис. Ключевые слова: товар, услуга, обслуживание, сервис, парадигма, маркетинговая услуга, сервисный процесс, интерактивный маркетинг.
Ключевые слова: Товар, услуга, обслуживание, сервис, парадигма, маркетинговая услуга, сервисный процесс, интерактивный маркетинг
К сожалению, текст статьи доступен только на Английском
The service industry is broad and progressive scope of socially necessary labor, mediated by the goals and objectives of building a democratic state with a developed infrastructure in the conditions of market relations. According to domestic and foreign experts the growth and importance of services are observed in national economies and world economy.
According L. Berry, recent researches in this area are devoted to the application of other methods .
K. Lavlok and E. Gamesson offered the following alternative paradigms of services:
- refusal of the separation of goods and services;
- refusal of consider all services as a single category and organization of researches of various types of services separately;
- search for a new, more sound characteristics of services that underlie their difference from the goods.
Of course, such offer based on the requirements of the time, was to show the further development of many areas of services, their features of globalization. The correctness of these views is confirmed by deep penetration into the life of the Internet, GALS – technologies and marketing services. For example, scientists from America and Europe analyzing the history of the evolutionary development of marketing services, the conceptual paradigm put forward «on the services market services are different from goods». However, they emphasize the need of new energy and new direction for the current development of services.
I. V. Khristoforova, analyzing offers ofK. Lavlok andE. Gamesson and based on opinion of T. Levit «We all work in the service industry»  and R. Norris «Goods are in demand because they are necessary for the provision of services»  emphasizes a peculiar feature of this service, which increases the mass paradigm. The author also emphasizes the need for review of new features of services, their theoretical foundations and methods.
Researches conducted in recent years confirm that the services are manifested as a process. Services in the process of their delivery are considered as a specific sequence of actions or operations, «scenarios of service processes», «contacts with customers», «service process as the theater»  and «the service is an action» .
It is noted the manifestation of marketing services as a process in four of the seven models, in addition to the paradigm of “ 4 no» («4 Не») (immateriality, perishability, inseparability and heterogeneity) in the field of marketing services.
If in the model of D. Ratmel service is referred to as a process of interaction between producer and consumer, in the model of P. Aglis E. Langeard marked the division of the rooms on the visible and invisible parts for the user. The visible part being the most important, is divided into the contact personnel providing services and material environment in which the service process. In the Scandinavian model of interactive marketing is associated with the process of interaction between consumer and firm personnel services, as in the model of K. Lavlok marketing is viewed as the unity of the eight components. Services in each of the above models belong to the paradigm of non-materiality of services and are considered as a crucial element of the service process. Only in model of G. L. Shostak ,  the concept of service is treated as a material commodity production and additional service process. Based on the concept of Khristoforova I. V., Fedulin A. A. shows that in the paradigm of service – it is a process that is carried out during service provision and is aimed at production of goods by individual order. In line with this paradigm the finished product is expressed as a basic service, supplementary service and product complexes.
The analysis of the above definitions reveals that we are studying certain properties of service or the difference from other subjects and make sure that the service and servicing express the unity of the service and their flows to each other. Agreeing with the opinion of K. Lavlok about the refusal of the separation of goods and services, the need for separate consideration of different types of services, however, it is difficult to accept the offer of refusal to consider all services as a single category.
Showing the nonidentity of the concepts of «service», «servicing» and at the same time to assert the existence of transitions from service to servicing, then the service and again to service is not entirely logical. However, the consideration of a number of authors of the concept of rooms as a process considerably facilitates the correct solution of the problem of defining services.
If you pay attention on the way of evolutionary development of the terms «service», «servicing», service, maintenance in old, for many years, had a low status in society, and currently become one of important areas that have synergistic properties. This requires not only economic, but also philosophical approaches. For this purpose, initially, we should adopt a system of «service - servicing – service». Further, considering the service as a philosophical category, taking the service not only as a simple process, and the process aimed at the development of society, we can give the following new definition of services: services is the act of people providing each other good, use and benefits.
From this definition it follows that service is the action taking place in society, which should be beneficial to both parties. Kindness, virtue, as an important human qualities are the true essence of human activity .
The purpose of giving to the service of such paradigmatic definition is a change of attitude to the service, providing moral perfection, the welfare of society in all areas of the service sector, in the progress of society to achieve a distribution of qualities such as courtesy, generosity, honesty, and providing the benefits of kindness and goodness in society.
Now, considering the service as a philosophical core, we can give the following definition of maintenance: maintenance is an activity of the person (people) to the provision of benefits associated with goodness and virtue . This maintenance should be undertaken in conjunction with economic activity.
If you accept the service and service as a process (action) of the special relationship of people to themselves and the environment to achieve the purpose, on receipt of the funds and of the results, the service should be beneficial to both parties. This activity can be organized by enterprises, organizations, firms and other actors of maintenance.
The service activity includes research on the creation of tools, products, production, quality control, standardization, registration, storage, communication, implementation, etc. Under the current service, including the service, which has a socio – economic nature and philosophical essence, refers to comprehensive services with highly qualified employees and modern tools. In this case, we can give the following definition: a service is a highly complex activity (the simultaneous provision of multiple services) using modern means, which is associated with human actions (people) to the provision of good, virtue and benefit.
In order to accelerate the development of services, expansion of types and improvement of quality of services (especially in rural areas), increasing the role and importance of service sector in sustainable and dynamic development of the economy, providing employment, increasing incomes and increasing welfare of population of Uzbekistan, currently adopted program ofservices development in the Republic of Uzbekistan for 2012-2016.
Evolution of service in the years of independence can be divided into 3 major stages of development:
Stage 1 (1991-1997) – the reform of the service, liberation from ideology, the freedom, the transition to a multi-sector economy;
Stage 2 (1997-2006) the creation of socio-economic conditions for the development of maintenance and service;
Stage 3 (after 2006) – improvement and development of service.
During the first stage of initiation the state of development of small business and private entrepreneurship has changed the property relations in the service serving businesses out of the control of the statw, developed private property, stopped the monopolistic activities of state and cooperative enterprises, unit administrative management (application of economic methods for economic freedom, independent management of economic responsibility is administrative planning). These changes have positively changed the situation and existing system.
The second stage of development of service in Uzbekistan was the creation stage of the socio-economic environment. At this time, created the environment for legal staff, regulatory styles, financial and material standards, etc. As in other sectors of the economy of maintenance and service carried out was adopted in 1997 the Law «On Education» for the reformation of education, freeing it from old ideology, the training of highly qualified personnel on a democratic basis, meet moral and ethical requirements. The second stage of development of service suited to the second phase of the «National guidelines training».
In the direction of maintenance and service were opened hundreds of specialized secondary andhigher educational institutions began competing of highly qualified personnel. For example, by order of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan from March 26, 2004 was organized Samarkand institute of economy and service which was entrusted the duty of trainingof highly qualified personnel in the direction of service.
Despite the conduct of many Affairs in the second stage, the share of services in GDP was low.
In the third stage of development in an environment of increasing incomes, reduce inflation, the President I. A. Karimov at the meeting of the United Supreme Council of the house of law and Senate said in his report, « ... it is necessary to increase the volume and types of service, especially to the rural population» and adopted the law «On measures for the development of maintenance and service in 206-2010 years in the Republic of Uzbekistan». At this time, based on the law of the President «About additional measures of acceleration of development of service in the period up to 2010 in the Republic of Uzbekistan» the government of the Republic of Uzbekistan was developed by the State decree about the development of maintenance and service. To eliminate the negative effects of the global crisis in 2009-2012, measures were taken aimed at the development of services and small business, enhancing the amusement of the population and standard of living of the population. The announcement of 2011 the «Year of small business and private entrepreneurship» shows increasing value of service.
In the basis of the «Uzbek model» of service development, phased development of service enterprises is the principle of a strong social policy, social protection of the population. Including, in the initial stages of development of maintenance and service of the free state was prepared physicians, created favorable economic and financial conditions.
Practice service activities requires entry into a certain relationship of the two main parties. So, it presents specialized structures that produce services for which service activity is a kind of professional labor, business, and management in the field of management. Consumers act by the other party, which through market exchange wishes to receive specific benefits based on their needs. The service providers are faced with customers who report service activities is largely non-economic characteristics, generated by their interests, emotions and value orientations. Based on the foregoing, lawful, the government set requirements for the development of comprehensive territorial programs on development of services sector for 2011-2016, including:
- further improve the structure of the service sector, the market is saturated with modern services;
- improving the quality of service and increased availability of various kinds of social and household services for residents of regions;
- priority development of enterprises to provide services in rural settlements;
- wide involvement into the sphere of services of subjects of family businesses and graduates of professional colleges and higher educational institutions.
As can be seen in the improvement and development of services special emphasis on the state, especially in the period of transition to a market economy.